|4 steps clearance of the rudder (Drawings by M. Guérout)|
The wrecks of the Mary Rose (1545) and that of the Basque whale boat Red Bay (the presumed San Juan, dated 1565) are the only 16th century wrecks still equipped with, respectively, a partially preserved rudder and an entire rudder
Its 1.45 m width is almost equivalent to the 1.44 metres of the rudder found on the 18th century 74 cannons vessel.
|- Reconstruction of the
Drawing by Roberto Greco
The port was bored above a stringer, 60 cm above the first deck.
The opening is 78 cm wide and 64 cm high. The lower part is formed of the ends of three frame futtocks located exactly at the level of the upper part of the stringer, or 1.60 metres above sea level.
The hull is reinforced around the port thanks to a particularly careful assembling of the two pairs of frame futtocks on each side of the hole. This is a double Jupiter assembling technique: the two Jupiter cutting lines are performed on two perpendicular planes.
The upper part of the hull above the port had not been preserved.
The flap itself consists of 7 elements assembled with iron nails: three horizontal plankings strengthened inside by three vertical cross beams laid on a horizontal block. Two vertical iron pieces cover the flap's planking on the outside.
The flap opened by pivoting around its upper edge.
At the time of discovery, it was caulked with packing, which proves that there was a fear of water infiltrating inside the ship with this type of opening.
The location of the lower part of the port above the first deck allowed the use of the gun discovered on its carriage, and the use of small wheels (30 cm of diameter).
The powder hold
The study of the powder hold was carried out on the basis of several preserved elements: pillars, floor and partitions. Its structure, volume and the methods according to which the hold was built have thus been studied.
The hold is located at the stern of the ship, at a place where structures vary considerably: the total width of the hold at beam level is 6.40 metres for its back partition, while its front partition is only 4.40 m wide. These two partitions are at a distance of 1.85 m, and height under the orlop deck beam is 1.20 m. It is not known for sure if the hold went higher than this beam.
If this was the case, then 60 to 70 powder kegs could possibly be stored in the hold, each keg containing 35 to 40 litres on average.
No special protection was noticed on the floor or on the partitions, which is contrary to the safety requirements of that time.
The location of the powder hold at the stern of the ship, while it would later be located at the back (particularly in France), was probably due to the fact that the kitchen was at that period traditionally placed on a firebrick sole at the back of the ship. The presence of an open fire was probably the reason for the powder being kept as far away as possible from the kitchen. This location appears clearly on a Genoese building contract that we have studied.
This is the only known indication of such a type of hold location.